A left ventricular pseudoaneurysm forms when a cardiac rupture is contained by adherent pericardium or scar tissue. Most cases are related to myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack. These ruptures sometimes are classified as false aneurysms, and they are different from and should not be confused with actual left ventricular aneurysms. Pseudoaneurysms are a result of a breach or break in the walls of blood vessels, which allows blood to leak through the walls that is then contained by surrounding soft tissue.
Pseudoaneurysms can be more dangerous that regular aneurysms. A left ventricular pseudoaneurysm is a rare condition that is difficult to diagnose, with chest pain and congestive heart failure being the most common symptoms, although some cases produce no distinguishable symptoms. Studies indicate that a large percentage of those with left ventricular pseudoaneurysms also have heart murmurs, and at least half of those studied had visible masses that showed up in radiographic tests (such as x-rays, ultrasounds, and MRIs), which is thought to be an important factor in distinguishing the condition from other heart-related ailments and ensuring a correct diagnosis. Ventricular pseudoaneurysms typically have a high mortality rate, despite possible treatments and surgeries available to minimize damage from the rupture.
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