Juvenile Diabetes (Type 1)-Overview
Type 1 diabetes strikes suddenly, most often the young, but can develop at any age. In this disorder, the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Insulin is the gatekeeper for glucose (blood sugar), which enters the cells to provide energy. When glucose cannot enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. As a result, body’s cells literally starve to death. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections and regularly monitor their blood-sugar levels.
Only a small portion of diabetics suffer from type 1 diabetes, only 5% to 10%. In children, the symptoms can be almost flu-like. Other symptoms include unusual thirst and frequent urination, a big appetite with weight loss, blurred vision, irritability, and mood swings.
The diabetic clinics at UAB test and treat diabetes and its complications with a multidisciplinary approach.
- Assessment of beta-cell function
- insulin sensitivity
- counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia
- Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing (oGTT)
- Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (fsIVGT)
- Glucagon Stimulated C-Peptide
- Mixed-Meal Tolerance Test
- Insulin Tolerance Test
- Hyperinsulinemic Euglycemic Glucose Clamp
- Hyperglycemic Glucose Clamp
- Hyperinsulinemic Stepped Hypoglycemic Clamp
- Many other dynamic endocrine tests
- Energy expenditure
- Body composition studies
- Performance of percutaneous fat
- Muscle biopsy